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UK Against Fluoridation

Friday, February 09, 2018

Impact of Drinking Water Fluoride on Human Thyroid Hormones: A Case- Control Study

.... This finding is consistent with the Peckham study in England, which reported OR = 1.5 (CI 95%: 1.16–2) for hypothyroidism, where the maximum fluoride concentration was more than 0.7 mg/L. However, it is not clear due to the small difference in the concentration of fluoride, as can be seen from the correlation between fluoride in drinking water and the TSH hormone as shown in Table 232.

Conclusion and Recommendation

This paper compares measurements of the average amount of thyroid hormones (T3, T4, and TSH) in people with thyroid disease (specifically, hypothyroidism) and people without thyroid disease, with respect to fluoride concentrations in two levels 0–0.29 and 0.3–0.5 (mg/L) in drinking water and several other variables (gender, family history, water consumption, exercise, other disease conditions).

The major finding of this study is that TSH values are higher with a higher fluoride concentration in the drinking water, even for generally low fluoride concentrations. This is seen both in cases of untreated hypothyroidism and in controls. In multivariate regression logistic analysis, the independent variables associated with hypothyroidism were: gender (odds ratio: 2.5, CI 95%: 1.6–3.9), family history of thyroid disease (odds ratio: 2.7, CI 95%: 1.6–4.6), exercise (odds ratio: 5.34, CI 95%: 3.2–9), diabetes (odds ratio: 3.7, CI 95%: 1.7–8), hypertension (odds ratio: 3.2, CI 95%:1.3–8.2), amount of water consumed per day (odds ratio: 4, CI 95%: 1.2–14).

In other words, cases tend to have higher TSH values (greater impairment of thyroid function) with higher fluoride concentrations in the water. Controls, with normal thyroid function, also have higher TSH values with higher fluoride concentrations, even though their TSH values are still within the normal range. TSH values are higher (in both cases and controls) with higher levels of water consumption. This is consistent with an association between increased fluoride intake (due to increased water consumption) and increased TSH. It was found that F impacts human thyroid hormones, especially TSH and T3 even in the standard concentration of less than 0.5 mg/L.

Even after the addition of iodine to salt by the integrated program in Iran more than 27 years ago, this study showed that the problem remains unsolved. The results showed that those who consume larger amounts of water per day have an adjusted OR of 4.1 (1.2–14). Hence, the application of standard household water purification (such as reversed osmosis, electro dialysis, activated carbon filter, and other adsorption/ion-exchange methods) is recommended for patients with hypothyroidism since they have a higher consumption of drinking water. The purification systems can help remove fluoride that interferes with thyroid functions.


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